5G is the new digital system for converting bytes – data units – through the air. It uses a 5G new radio interface, along with other new technologies, which use a large number of radio frequency ensembles to transmit more data over the air for faster speeds, reduced congestion and lower latency, which delay instruction before data transfer begins.
Spectrum of 4G and 5G.
This new interface, which uses a millimeter-wave spectrum, allows more devices to be used in the same geographical area; 4G can support 4,000 devices per square kilometer, while 5G can support one million. This means more Netflix streaming in limited air space, voice calls, and YouTube without interruption.
5G uses the new digital technology, which have Multiple Input and Multiple Output, which uses multiple target beams to detect and chase the users around the cell site, improving coverage, speed and efficiency. Current network technologies act as floodlights, illuminate an area, but waste a lot of signal. As part of the roll-out of 5G, massive MIMO and 5G new radios will be installed for all mobile network base stations on existing 4G infrastructure.
How is 5G different to 4G?
Compared to third-generation mobile networking, 4G has begun to stream video and streaming calls that were previously impossible to access, meaning live TV is now routinely viewed on a daily basis. More video streaming, however, has increased congestion on the network.
“The technology limits how quickly data can be transferred across blocks of the 4G spectrum,” explained Chris Mills, Head of Industry Analysis at Tutela. The main difference between 5G and 4G is that this jamming is eliminated. This means there are no five bars of networking signal during rush hour, but the inability to access the web browser.
But undoubtedly, the biggest differentiation of 5G to 4G would be a gateway to the Internet of Things-connected world. Subsequent iterations of 5G networking are expected to be revolutionary for data-driven industries, smart cities, and infrastructure management, as more and more devices in the same area can operate, reliably, securely and continuously.
Overall, 5G has many advantages over 4G, due to the new technologies, spectrum and frequency of applications it uses; High speed, low latency, large number of connected devices, low interference and improved efficiency.
How does 5G work in terms of bandwidth, latency and spectrum?
Each operator has blocks of spectrum, a series of electromagnetic radio frequency encies that are used to transmit sound, data and video across the country. This spectrum can be combined to create their entire network capacity, which determines how fast they can transfer data.
Bandwidth of 4G and 5G
Today an operator may have a total spectrum of 100 mhz for all of his UK customers to use, but eventually with 5G it will increase to 1,000 mhz – this is a real change with 5G.
This also creates very little latency in the system, meaning that data is transferred in real time.
Latency rate 4G and 5G
The latency for 4G is 20-30 milliseconds, but for 5G it’s less than 10 milliseconds, and in the best case scenario, 1 milliseconds is delayed, said Mats Norin, program manager at Ericsson Research’s 5G for Industries.